Образовательная среда

Формирование образовательной среды 

в МАОУ «СОШ № 7 с углубленным изучением английского языка» г. Перми

 

         Важнейшая задача учителя - создать среду, провоцирующую учащегося на появление вопросов и желание найти ответы, то есть на проявление черт исследовательского поведения.

            В решении этой задачи в 2010-2011 учебном году мной был разработан проект «Наука и познание в развитии личности ребенка», направленный:

- на создание исследовательской среды  и объединение общеобразовательных учреждений международного бакалавриата на территории Российской Федерации путем интеграции их в единое научно-исследовательское образовательное пространство на базе МОУ СОШ N 7 г. Перми с углубленным изучением английского языка.

- на реализацию прав ребенка на всестороннее и гармоничное развитие

- на популяризацию знаний по правам ребенка в среде российских школ – участниц внедрения программы Международного бакалавриата.

       В основе проекта - конкурс исследовательских проектов. Конкурс содействовал реализации региональной целевой программы «Семья и дети Прикамья» и приоритетного национального проекта «Образование».

                Деятельность в рамках проекта направлена на создание организационных и педагогических условий в Пермском крае по реализации исследовательского компонента образовательных программ международного бакалавриата и формирования единого Всероссийского научно-исследовательского пространства по обмену идеями, опытом участников проекта – учащихся, учителей, специалистов в области разработки и внедрения образовательных программ в сфере бакалавриата.

            Промежуточным итогом в реализации проекта стало проведение I Всероссийской конференции учащихся образовательных учреждений международного бакалавриата 4-6 ноября 2011 года. В рамках конференции более 20 учащихся под моим руководством подготовили и представили свои исследовательские проекты на английском языке. Представляю Вашему вниманию некоторые из них.




Assessment of Index of Human Development as an integral indicator of social and economic development of Perm region



Was carried out by a student of 10th form English School №7 

Vladislav Gurenko

 Was supervised by the teacher of the geography department English School №7

Irina Baskevich

My work of social geography is called “Assessment of Index of Human Development as an integral indicator of social and economic development of Perm region”.

      

In many European countries people can get information about the level of economic development of every region, but in Russia if we want to get detailed info there would be some problems. In my work I tried to solve these problems. The 1st problem is that the information is significant but it can be understood only by a specialist, the 2nd – lack of visual representation of info, people sometimes can’t understand “dry” numbers of statistics. In my work I decided to find this information, analyze, process and make it accessible for everyone. Also the aim of my work is: presentation of info about the assessment of life in Perm region in a convenient way, including info to a social passport of Perm region. To achieve my aim I stated [8] the following tasks:

        1.     To learn about technology of assessment of life quality

        2.     Get general info about integral indexes, methods of their calculation

        3.     Gather initial data for calculation of indexes of Perm region

        4.     Analyze the results

        5.     Introduce results to the Ministry of social development and social passport of Perm region

         There are many methods of visual presentation of information of life quality of a territory. Two of them are the most popular: IHD and Index Gini. IHD – indicator which shows general situation of life quality on a specific territory. It includes 3 indexes: index of profit, index of life, index of education which are calculated by special formulas. Index Gini shows stratification of profits. 5 groups of population are used in calculation. Mathematically, it is expressed by ratio between this filled area and 5000. The algorithm of IHD is quite simple. The example is calculating IHD for Russia. Initial data is transformed to indexes which are used in IHD calculating with the help

formulas. IHD equals simple average of 3 indexes. For Russia it equals 0.802. Russia is on the 65th place of IHD in the world. It yields to such countries as Germany, Great Britain, Korea, and Lichtenstein. Analysis contains of 2 parts: analyzing the situation in the Urals, then in Perm region. Researches were performed and they that, Ural Ec. Reg. has is the biggest stratification of profits (GI=0.5258). This can be explained by the fact that in Ural region there is a huge amount of country population (more than 60-70%), their profits are rather little. Ural Ec. Reg. has IHD which equals 0.806. This value is a little bit higher than average in Russia. The reason of such value is that southern part of Ural Ec. Reg. is prospering; it has high level of average profits, education. For example, for Orenburg region IP=0.846, IE=0.898, but IL=0.696. Calculations for 47 municipal formations of Perm region of ID, IL, and IP and in general, IHD were made. Main initial data was taken from the site of Analytic system of Perm region. As a result of my work 4 maps and 1 table were made. Judging by the map of IHD made by data which was processed in my work, in Perm region IHD varies from 0.674 to 0.76. Minimal IHD is registered in Kudimkar’s region, maximal – in Perm. Maximal IHD can be explained by the harmony of development of the territory of Perm: all indicators of social sphere have equal high values. The second reason is historical development of this territory and its economic specialization. Minimal IHD is explained by low life level in Kudimkar’s region and system of economy, there is no sector of heavy industry. Also some statistical work was made: tables with gradations appeared. They show what part (in percent) does regions with high rates take in all studied regions. After finding all the values of IHD, they were divided them into 5 gradations. The regions with very high level of IHD make only 8.5% of all the territories.
        To understand the situation fully, comparative analysis of every component was made. Firstly, about IP. It varies from 0.746 to 0.822.

        

        Only 6.4% of Perm region’s territories have high level of IP. They are: Gainsky, Kochevsky and Permsky regions. I was a little bit surprised when I found Gainsky and Kochevsky regions in this list. But the reason of this was rather simple: IP depends on average profit. If the population is not very big, then profit per capita increases. Comparison of IP of Perm region with the Russian level, showed that only 2 municipal formations have IP higher than average Russian level, 38% of territories have medium level of IP. With the help of IP map people can see in what territories we should raise the level of profits. The example is Sivinsky region.

         But examining the territories with high levels of IP and their IHD, showed discrepancy between high level of IP and low level of IHD.



        Low level of IHD of these regions is explained by the low IL. Results about analysis of IL. Its gradation: 0.583-0.75. Statistic table shows that only 13% of all Perm regions have high IL, 25% of all territories have very low IL. The reason is: bad ecological situation which is explained by industrial buildings (in Gornozavodsky region there is a cement factory), the second reason is the low level of medical service on the borders of Perm region, especially in the zone of Komi-Perm’. Government should draw attention to such territories as Gainsky, Yurlinsky, Kudimkarsky, Gornozavodsky regions. Politics of government can be directed to the building of new medical buildings, strengthening of supervision of the people’s health, especially in harmful industries. There is another fact that IL always decreases the level of IHD, it is low and the average index falls. In Perm region there are 4 municipal formations with the highest levels of IL: Tchaikovsky, Chernushinsky, c. Kungur, Suksunsky regions. During the comparison of high level of IL and IHD, discrepancy was found in 2 of 4 occasions. The reasons are medium level of profit for Kungur, low IE for Suksunsky region.



        During the comparison of IL of Perm region territories with the average Russian level it was marked that only 14 of 47 municipal formations (1/3) can be compared with Russian level, others showed worse results. This can tell that during the distribution of the budget, the government should raise expenditures on health care. And the last index which was analyzed is IE. It varies from 0.651 to 0.764. Judging by the statistic table, only 8.5% of all MF (municipal formations) have high level of IE. The greatest number of MF (36%) has IE which is lower than medium. 2 reasons of this: firstly, % of literate grown-up population lowers from the center of Perm region to its periphery. The second reason is low number of pupils in the population of each MF. For example, for Gubahinsky region the number of pupils is 6905 from 50 thousands of population. What about the worst results? ¼ of MF have them. To improve the situation, it is necessary: to raise birth rate, invest money to education and science by building schools, sending people to study in the universities. The state of         Perm region for IE is the most deplorable of all the indexes, because average Russian IE equals 0.919. 3 MF of Perm region have the highest IE. They are: c. Kudimkar, Solikamsky, Bolshesosnovsky regions. But again if we look at the IHD of these territories we will see that they are not at the first places of IHD ranking. IHD of Bolshesosnovsky region equals 0.702, but there is a very low IL (0.583). Kudimkar is on the 10th place, Solikamsky region – 12th. The only exclusion of what was said is c. Perm and its surrounding territories where all the indexes are high; it is on the 1st place of IHD rating. There are some obvious reasons of this: Perm is the center of Russian subject, it was developing very violently, the dense population, developed economy of this territory. The last interesting research was made. It was looked what index was the dominant in IHD level to see in which region specific sphere (education or health or profits) is developed. For 40 of 47 MF IP was the main dominant index in IHD. This fact says about misbalance of human potential in Perm region. This must be told to people and be solved with the government. For 4 MF IHD is formed by IP and IE. Only for 3 MF IHD depends on all the indexes.

         Conclusion of work: Perm region has a mixed position of IHD and Gini index. Gini index in Perm region coincides with average Russian level, IHD is higher than average, in Perm region there is a territorial differentiation of life quality: urbanized and industrial regions excel agrarian ones. Firstly, it is explained by the fact that economy of agrarian territories varies from industrial: different specialization, price politics. Population of agrarian territories suffers less from harmful emissions; the health level is higher here. In the urbanized territories the education is better than in the agrarian. There will be a project for adding to social passport the next information: IP, IL, IE, and IHD. So everyone will know about life quality in the region where he lives.






report on bioindication research on vegetation in Chernyaevsky Park, Perm.



Was carried out by a student of 9th form English School №7 

Irina Igosheva

 Was supervised by the teacher of the geography department English School №7

Irina Baskevich


Over the last few years travelling to national parks has become a popular recreation activity not only abroad but in Russia too. All heard of cleanliness and amazing wildlife of national parks in the United States.

And what about parks and gardens here in Perm?

Chernyaevsky Park has long been a favourite recreational site for residents of Perm. Being the largest forest park in Perm it has been a protected area since 1960. The park contains 214 species of land plants, some of them being listed as endangered. Among animals found in the park are the stoat (Mustela erminea, also known as the ermine or short-tailed weasel) and the least weasel (Mustela nivalis). Residents of the nearby city district Industrialny use Chernyaevsky Park as a recreational area all the year round. Much work has been done lately to improve the area.

Chernyaevsky Park is a favourite recreational site for Perm residents. In their summer walks throughout the park people have come to notice tree leaves turning yellow as early as in June with many of them having spots and holes. We decided to investigate what could be the causes of such damage.

The amount of harmful agents exhausted by local industries and vehicles into the air in the district adjoining the park exceeds by far the permissible level. It was our hypothesis that the damage to the trees in the park is caused by those pollutants.

 Thus, the object of our research was:

 ·       to identify which harmful substances affect plants in the park (this was to be done using the bioindication method);

·       to assess the current condition of vegetation in the park with the study of the morphology of trees (their composition and structure, the condition of the bark and needle leaves).

 To realize the object we set to accomplish the following tasks:

 1.    to assess the condition of deciduous trees in the park and to identify and classify the types of damage to their leaves.

2.    to determine how the damage is related to air pollution caused by exhausts from industries and vehicles.

 

This research took us five years starting in 2005 and consisted of two stages:

 1.    Study of the condition of deciduous trees in the park.

2.    Study of the condition of conifers in the park.

 

Three sample areas were selected to investigate this:

 1.     Sample Area No 1 (also referred to as “The Nearest One”) – within the range of 50 metres off the thoroughfare (“Shosse Kosmonavtov”), in the vicinity of the bus stop “9 Maya”;

2.    Sample Area No 2 (also referred to as “The Farthest One”) – within the range of 1 km off the thoroughfare (deep inside the park);

3.    Sample Area No 3 – along the thoroughfare “Pionerskaya Trassa” at the section between the bus stop “Park Kultury” and the crossroads at the thoroughfare “Shosse Kosmonavtov”.

 

Subject of research: - 15 deciduous trees and 20 conifers in the park in each sample area. Samples of leaves of deciduous and coniferous trees from the above areas were taken each year on July 20 and September 20.

 

Method of research: - visual. The method used in identifying harmful substances is referred to as “Bioidentification Method”.


Stage No 1. Study of the condition of deciduous trees.

The total amount of sampled leaves was 2200. The types of damage revealed in the course of the entire research were classified into groups. Comparison of research results with data contained in reference books on bioidentification exposed the pollutants which caused the above damages.

 

The following types of damage were found in Sample Area No 1: (The Nearest One)

·       dotted, edged, spotted necrosis, “fish skeleton”-type necrosis;

·       silvery spots, burn-spots;

·       discoloration, leaf twist, enlargement of leaf blades.  

 

The most typical damage found in the course of the 5-year research in this sample area was leaf twist and tearing at edges – 36 to 41% of all cases.

 

Observation results when compared with data from reference books on bioidentification revealed the following harmful agents which caused the above damage:

·       exhaust gases - sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide;

·       chlorides, salts used for de-icing of roads;

·       heavy metals (lead, vanadium, mercury, cadmium);

·       fume gases exhausted from industrial facilities (phenol, formaldehyde).

 

The following types of damage were found in Sample Area No 2: (The Farthest One):

·       edged necrosis, “fish skeleton”-type necrosis;

·       “rusty” spots, brown spots;

·       leaf twist and damage at edges.

 

The most typical damage found in the course of the 5-year research in this sample area was edged necrosis and decomposition at edges – 23% to 35% of all cases.

 

Observation results when compared with data from reference books on bioidentification revealed the following harmful agents which caused the above damage:

·       fume gases exhausted from industrial facilities – sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrous oxide (N2O)

 

The following types of damage were found in Sample Area No 3: (“Pionerskaya Trassa”):

·       necrotic spots, leaf twist, brown spots;

·       inter-vein, dotted, edged, necrosis, brown spots, premature decomposition, leaf blade shrinkage;

·       burn-spots, holes, silvery spots, leaf blade tearing

 

The most typical damage found in the course of the 5-year research in this sample area was warped leaves and leaves gone prematurely yellow with edged, dotted and spotted necrosis – 27 to 37% of all cases.

 

Observation results when compared with data from reference books on bioidentification revealed the following harmful agents which caused the above damage:

 

·       exhaust gases – sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), peroxyacetyl nitrate, salts for de-icing of roads, heavy metals.

 

Based on the general conclusions one can see that the percentage of damaged leaves in Sample Area No 1 (“The Nearest One”) rises from 51.2% to 56.5% in the period of 2005 through 2007 and then falls to 45.6% in 2009. The harmful substances found there are produced by exhausts from vehicles moving down the thoroughfare “Shosse Kosmonavtov” that adjoins the park in that area.

 

The percentage of damaged leaves in Sample Area No 2 (“The Farthest One”) in the period of 2005 through 2009 decreases from 52.3% to 45.2%. The types of harmful substances found there show how that area is affected by exhausts from industries.

 

The percentage of damaged leaves in Sample Area No 3 (“Pionerskaya Trassa”) in the period of 2005 through 2009 indicates a considerable increase from 47.6% to 61.1%. The types of harmful substances found there reveal how exhausts from passing-by vehicles down the thoroughfares “Pionerskaya Trassa” and “Shosse Kosmonavtov” affect that park area.

 

Stage No 2. Study of the condition of coniferous trees.

 

Apart from the study of deciduous trees undertaken was a research into the condition of coniferous trees. For that purpose we sampled 20 trees in each area – 10 pine trees and 10 fir trees.

In determining the main types of damage to conifers we proceeded from:

·       the appearance of the trees;

·       the condition of their needle leaves.

 

The appearance-based monitoring of the trees revealed the following types of damage :

·       lack of needles on branches of pines and fir-trees;

·       damage to the bark;

·       fallen trees.

         The results of the monitoring enable us to make the following conclusions:

·       Most damaged trees are found in Sample Area No 1 where the typical type of damage is dry tree branches and whole trees gone dry.

·       In Sample Area No 1 and in the area along “Pionerskaya Trass” one can find fallen fir trees and pines which is very uncommon for those trees since their root systems are very strong. That speaks for serious damage inflicted on them which could even cause their root system to die off.

·       Monitoring the crowns of firs and pines indicates that in all the areas most pines’ crowns are very thin and coming only from the uppermost part of the trunk.

·       The least number of damaged trees – 6 pines and 4 firs – was found in Sample Area No 2 (“The Farthest One”). Many trees in this area had dried branches with no needles on them.

·       By the height of the conifers one can tell their approximate age. The average height of grown pines comes to 15-30 metres. The condition of needles on the Pinus sylvestris (commonly known as the Scots Pine) and the Norway Spruce (Picea abies) indicates the following types of damage:

o   needles turning completely yellow or black;

o   needles with black and yellow spots;

o   needles with yellow or black points.

·       The obtained results point out that:

o   Sample Area No 1 has the largest number of trees with completely yellow needles, while Sample Area No 2 – the smallest number of such trees;

o   Completely black needles are found on trees in Sample Area No 2 and in the area along “Pionerskaya Trassa”;

o   Needles with yellow spots are not found in Sample Area No 2 at all, while the area along “Pionerskaya Trassa” has the largest number of them;

o   Sample Area No 1 has the least number of black-pointed needles while Sample Area No 2 has the largest number of such needles;

o   Sample Area No 2 has the least number of yellow-pointed needles.

 

The general conclusion on the condition of tree needles: Most damaged needles are found in Sample Area No 1 while Sample Area No 2 has the least number of them.

 

Conclusions of the research:

In the course of studying and investigating the condition of vegetation in Chernyaevsky Park we have:

1.    ascertained different types of damage to deciduous and coniferous trees and established that this damage originates in polluted air caused by exhausts from industrial facilities and vehicles.

2.    identified specific substances that bring about such damage;

3.    identified probable sources of air pollution for each sample area;

4.    determined how badly specific parts of the park are polluted depending on how far they stand away from the thoroughfares;

5.    ascertained that the park areas closest to the thoroughfare “Shosse Kosmonavtov” are affected by harmful agents exhausted by vehicles and by salts used for de-icing the roads. The area located deep inside the park is affected by exhausts from industrial facilities – fumes and gases.

The results of the research have confirmed our premise that the ecological condition of Chernyaevsky Park is unsatisfactory and that the air of Industrialny district is badly polluted. A natural entity which presented no cause for concern in the recent past is now subjected to ever-increasing industrial and transport pollution resulting in decline of all its plants in general and deciduous and coniferous trees in particular. 

 



   History, culture, mode of life, rites and customs of permian tatars and bashkirs



Was carried out by a student of 8 form English School №7 

Ramil Shaymardanov

Was supervised by the teacher of the geography department English School №7

Irina Baskevich


The population of Tatars and Bashkirs on the area of Permian district is about 177000 people.

During all the history of Permian krai it formed as polytechnic district: it was opened up by different in language, provenance, economy and customs people, and as a result it is one of most interesting, having no straight analogues in another regions of Russia.

I would like to characterize it in following categories:

·     House-building

·     Costumes

·     Food

·     Feast

·     Written language

For a long period of time in Tatar villages disorderly type of building predominated. There was no system in plan of settlement.

In the center of the settling was city square with mosque, administration buildings such as fire station or volost administration, benches and shops.

Large significance was spared to choice of place for future building. They didn’t choose place of charred dwellings, bath-houses, draw-well , opposite fine place for building was that “where geese and duck after rain sits”. First to carry in the house was bread and flour to have always wealth in the house.

Traditional Tatar costume has a characteristic features:  brightness, large amount of color inks, color saturation and rich decoration.

One of its distinctive peculiarities was usage of patterned textile, to make a costume: striped or checked coarse motley cotton fabric, textile with …. As a material often was used flax, more seldom wool mixture or cotton.

Characteristic head-dress of Permian Tatar is skull-cap (in tatar tebeti).

The basis of food of Tatar and Bashkir, the same with food basis of other nations of our district, consisted of products of farming and animal produce.

Of products of farming in first place were used wild crops: rye, wheat, oats, barley, buckwheat and millet.

Permian Tatars difference from other groups of Tatars and Baskirs was usage in food mushrooms: milk mushroom, saffron milk cap, orange-cap boletus, brown cap boletus, boletus, coral milky cap. They also used wild berries such as strawberries, currants, ash berries.

The most involved by consist and rite complex was ceremony called сабантуй (сабан – plough, туй – day). Preparing and carrying out of that holiday took large amount of time. The preparation included collecting of presents and of towels. The dates of carrying out of сабантуй were different in different villages it permitted people to visit сабантуй two or more times. Under word джиен people understood meet of relatives, concourse. In some villages джиен substituted сабантуй.

Family customs.

The birth of the baby was an important event of family live, there also were some traditions connected with it. For example in seven days after birth of child was “name giving”. The name was chosen by parents but on that ceremony mullah was invited.  He prayed god for him and whispered baby’s name to the new-born child.

There also were some marriage customs. Marriage rites longed for large period of time and included some stages. The most popular type of marriage was wedding with matchmaking. But also there was bride abduction  кыз урлау.  After that “nikah” took place, after which mullah declared newly-weds husband and wife.  The next stage was wedding in bride’s house. While feast there was an order in serving up. First tea was served with many section cake, then was soup, and in the end the marriage-goose was served. The next stage was wedding at the groom’s house. It was similar to previous stage. To her husband’s house bride came with all her dowry.

Tatar language.

Tatars have an ancient writing language and many centuries literature tradition. At the border of XIX–XX centuries the rules of modern language were formed. The most ancient type of writing language of Turkic nations was rune-writing.  Together with accepting Islam in the 10th they changed writing language to Arabic which they used until year 1927. During that time lots of books in Arabic appeared. Then they used Latin alphabet for 11 years, then they accepted Cyrillic alphabet, they use until nowadays.


  Feast
  •  Displacement in dates.
  • Totally 22 holidays under name джиен were fixed.
  • Usually only name united them.
  • Джиен holiday of meeting relatives.
  • Youth festive were held together with round dances and joyful games.
  Costumes
  •  The costume was distinguished by brightness, number of color inks, color saturation and rich decoration.
  •  Female shirt was usually made from coarse motley cotton fabric.
  • Textiles for feast costumes were bought at markets.
  •  Head-dress, shoes and dress were decorated by pattern.
  • Male as well as female wear бишметы – long throw opened caftans with sleeve, dressing-gowns (чапан)  made from homespun material or Central Asiatic silk fabric.
  Dwellings
  •  There are three types of connecting dwelling and homestead.
  • Formation of that kind of dwellings was going on under influence of neighbor inhabitants.
  • Traditions of home building of Kazan Tatars formed under influence of religious, esthetic and culture peculiarities of population of district.
  Food
  •  Closeness of Russian villages promoted active penetration of purchased dishes 
  • The main part of food was cooked in the fireplace
  •  Dishes: dried sausage, dried goose, hen, stuffed with eggs.

Conclusion:

·        Geographical position and local population influenced on culture, mode of life and traditions.

·        I took part in some described rites and made sure that traditions, culture and mode of life of Permian Tatars are alive.

·        Сохранение этих обычаев, их изучение является важной задачей для сохранения мира на земле, недопущения межнациональных конфликтов.

·        Preservation of customs, study of them is an important task for conservation of peace on the Earth and preventing international conflicts.



 



          



       

    












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Конструктор Сайта,
31 авг. 2012 г., 5:18
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Конструктор Сайта,
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